The most well-known type of electrode (widely depicted in films and television) is the traditional metal paddle with an insulated (usually plastic) handle. This type must be held in place on the patient’s skin while a shock or a series of shocks is delivered. Before the paddle is used, a gel must be applied to the patient’s skin, in order to ensure a good connection and to minimize electrical resistance, also called chest impedance (despite the DC discharge). These are generally only found on the manual external units.

Newer types of resuscitation electrodes are designed as an adhesive pad. These are peeled off their backing and applied to the patient’s chest when deemed necessary, much the same as any other sticker. These electrodes are then connected to a defibrillator. If defibrillation is required, the machine is charged, and the shock is delivered, without any need to apply any gel or to retrieve and place any paddles. These adhesive pads are found on most automated and semi-automated units, and are gradually replacing paddles entirely in non-hospital settings.

Both solid- and wet-gel adhesive electrodes are available. Solid-gel electrodes are more convenient, because there is no need to clean the patient’s skin after removing the electrodes. However, the use of solid-gel electrodes presents a higher risk of burns during defibrillation, since wet-gel electrodes more evenly conduct electricity into the body.

Some adhesive electrodes are designed to be used not only for defibrillation, but also for transcutaneous pacing and synchronized electrical cardioversion.

In a hospital setting, paddles are generally preferred to pads, due to the inherent speed with which they can be placed and used. This is critical during cardiac arrest, as each second of nonperfusion means tissue loss. However, in cases in which cardiac arrest is suspected, patches placed prophalacticaly are superior,as they provide appropriate EKG tracing without the artifact visible from human interference with the paddles. Adhesive electrodes are also inherently safer than the paddles for the operator of the defibrillator to use, as they minimize the risk of the operator coming into physical (and thus electrical) contact with the patient as the shock is delivered, by allowing the operator to stand several feet away. Adhesive patches also require no force to remain in place and deliver the shock appropriately, whereas paddles require approximately 25 lbs of force to be applied while the shock is delivered.

Placement

Resuscitation electrodes are placed according to one of two schemes. The anterior-posterior scheme is the preferred scheme for long-term electrode placement. One electrode is placed over the left precordium (the lower part of the chest, in front of the heart). The other electrode is placed on the back, behind the heart in the region between the scapula. This placement is preferred because it is best for non-invasive pacing.

The anterior-apex scheme can be used when the anterior-posterior scheme is inconvenient or unnecessary. In this scheme, the anterior electrode is placed on the right, below the clavicle. The apex electrode is applied to the left side of the patient, just below and to the left of the pectoral muscle. This scheme works well for defibrillation and cardioversion, as well as for monitoring an ECG.

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